Two mechanisms for hydrogen replenishment occur to me.
1. Our Sun is enveloped in a huge magneto sheath called the heliosphere
which extends far beyond the outer planets. This sheath might be
considered a digestive
system for the Sun. As the Sun
sweeps around the Milky Way galaxy , which it orbits once every
250,000,000 years, the magneto bow wave of the solar magnetosphere slams
into particles of dust and
knocks off lose electrons. This gives the particle a static charge, which
makes it sensitive to the Sun's magnetic field lines. The particle follows
the field lines into the north and south pole of the Sun. Like a whale
hunting krill, the Sun sweeps up considerable quantities of these. The
Earth's Auroras are miniature versions of what the Sun does.
The Sun must occasionally collide with the dense gas
and dust globules that litter
the Milky Way. At times like that, the Sun must be in a feeding frenzy mode.
Lucky for Earth, the majority of the incoming material reaches the Sun
without intersecting the planetary plane. Even so, those impact craters that
pockmark our planets and moons have to come from somewhere.
2. Then there is the "Something
for Nothing " postulation which I believe now has empirical proofs. In
this scenario the mere act of the Sun sustaining an absolute vacuum is a
free lunch. As attractive as this explanation is, I have a hard time
wrapping my mind around it. Perhaps I'm old-fashioned or have lived in the
ghetto too long. There's got to be a catch.
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do you define "Space" in the definition of a volume?
Space and volume are two different things. Space is
of this Universe, a volume - in the sense that I mean it - describes
the location (out of space) in which non-space, or a vacuum can
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what would be the
outcomes of your theory with regard to black holes which are
alleged to be at the center of every galaxy?
have only a rough opinion about this. There is so little
observational data that one can only extrapolate, but here is my
train of logic:
Basically, it depends on the accretion disk that surrounds the heavy
pre-black hole object. Since the charged plasma accretion disk is
very hot and whirling very fast. The magnetic coherency of that
structure must be very powerful indeed. As I mentioned in the video,
the magnetic consideration has the potential to be 10 x 33 powers
stronger than the gravitational force.
It's a little bit like a mouse tethered to an elephant: it's NOT
what the heavy gravitational object in the center wants to do, it's
the charged plasma that gets to be the "decider". With the data
available to me, that's as much as I can figure out at present.
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idea goes against the established notion as to how the sun
works. How can you defend that?
am more than aware of the hydrogen/fusion core model and its
It is the human condition that most adherents might cling to the
hydrogen/fusion core model, because it is hard to conceive of any
other means of solar propagation.
Mass and gravity have always been considered inseparable, and I am
cognizant of the fact that an empty sun might be viewed as a rather
However, those who teach and present the hydrogen/fusion core model
as a unquestioned fact ought to be ashamed of themselves.
It is sloppy and unscientific.
Such curriculum ought to be based on the observations at hand rather
than drawing erroneous conclusions.
I think of these as neo-Ptolomeans - science priests, hopelessly
stuck in their own notions of solar propagation and the facts be
damned. The hydrogen/fusion core model has cleared no observational
hurdles, no predicted observations.
As a consequence of such disastrous assumptions, fusion experiments
based on these have
in failure. This has been going on for the past 50 years and has
yielded no fruit, because the science is fundamentally flawed.
It is consuming huge resources, and it is time for this nonsense to
I'll discuss solar propagation any
time although I have no interest debating the subject with
'opponents' who have turf to defend. I've offered my observations,
suggested some predictions. I am
not interested in pithy sparring, taking offence or offending
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challenging the laws of gravitation?
The laws of gravitation do a perfectly good job of describing the
actions of bodies in space-time.
I am suggesting that a the force of gravity may not be inextricably
bound by a given quantity of mass in its ground state.
What do I mean by ground state?
relationship between gravity
and mass appear to be inviolate in three three basic states of
matter, solid, liquid or gas. I am suggesting that mass in the
fourth state - a plasma state - can induce gravity under certain
circumstances. That is, affording more gravity than can be accounted
for by a corresponding quantity of mass.
To date, no experiments with plasmas have had a
placed within the vicinity. It would be interesting to see if there
is a response on a gravimeter near a
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good theory should have a prediction. Do you have one?
Actually, there are two predictions:
One possible way to verify this model would be to collect data on
the direction of neutrinos coming from the sun with some accuracy.
If the vacuum model is correct, we should be observing a limb
effect, neutrinos coming from the edge rather than from the center
of the Sun. This is because nothing, including neutrinos can pass
through the body of an absolute vacuum Sun.
Accordingly, they would have to be
generated in the outer layer. The result would be a halo or limb
Although less perfect
but would be a very useful tool:
- Calculate the mass necessary to
inaugurate nuclear fusion in a classic proto-sun model.
- Place it in the center of our
solar system and extrapolate the speed of its angular momentum,
determining its rotation using Saturn's and Jupiter's rotations
- The result will of course be a a
proto-star spinning more rapidly than Jupiter
- "inflate" the Sun to the suns
present size, distributing its mass in a shell
- This will slow the angular
momentum/rotation speed as then proto-sun expands.
- See if it tallies the actual
rotation speed of the sun.
This calculation ought to be possible.
If the reader is qualified and interested, I will commission the
project. The math must stand up
to rigorous peer review.
I will pay extra for a scripted GUI interface that will allow the
user to adjust the parameters. If you are interested, please
The Sun aside, Saturn and Jupiter
make up the majority of the Solar System's mass. These bodies
would be less likely to have changed rotational speeds from
random strikes of external objcts.
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Hello, my name is Stephen Goodfellow. If
you will bear with me for the next ten minutes, I will show you
something that may completely change the way you perceive the
Universe. In this short video I shall illustrate my outrageous
assertion that the sun is a shell of hydrogen with an absolute
vacuum interior - a vacuum that induces gravity.
Furthermore, I shall support this assertion with empirical
observations that I have collected over the past 30 years. Are you
ready? Good. Let's begin.
Milk added to a stirred cup of coffee outlines a vortex, which
consists of a high pressure exterior and a low pressure center.
The vortex behaves in a manner identical to that of the planets
orbiting the Sun, in that both phenomena obey Kepler's Laws of
Weather it be clotted cream swishing around a low pressure center,
or a planet orbiting our Sun, their behavior is essentially
identical. Now - this is the interesting part - The depression in
the center of the coffee is a relative absence of matter producing
an effect identical to that of planets and Sun mutually attracted to
In other words, one event is brought about by a concentration of
mass, the other by an absence thereof.
This induced gravitational attraction takes on many related
manifestations in nature, some of which we are likely to come
across, whether it be in the form of water going down a drain.
...or a whirlpool in a river...
On a larger scale, hurricanes...
Although the spiral galaxies means of propagation remain a mystery,
one cannot but be struck by the similarities between these and their
more earthly counterparts.
The inner ear
Consider the organ with which we hear, the eardrum. Sounds that the
inner ear receives and decodes are compressional waves - that is,
areas in which there is more air, between troughs of less air - or
high and low pressures.
Through vibration, the ear translates these waves into
electrochemical impulses which are sent to the brain - and that
should be all there is to it - except that the ear actually performs
another seemingly unrelated function. The ear has two semi-circular
canals which inform the brain as to your position in relation to our
planet's gravitational field.
Now that is really, really interesting; one organ performing two seemingly different tasks.
One part of the eardrum works with pressure, the other, with
Now, if pressure and gravity were two fundamentally distinct and
separate forces, should we not expect to find two distinctly
separate organs to discern these two forces? After all, this is the
usual order of things. The heart, uniquely suited to pump blood
fulfills it's specialized role. Lungs specifically supply oxygen to
So why should the inner ear neatly perform two functions? Could it
be that pressure and gravity are manifestations of the same force?
Dictionaries define a vacuum as "A space absolutely devoid of
matter." And though it seems a reasonable statement, it is not
A better definition would be, vacuum is "A volume with no space in
Wherever we look in the universe, absolute vacuums" are nowhere to
Now that is pretty astonishing. Because, for the longest time space
was thought to be an absolute vacuum.
When Einstein produced his work on Relativity in the early part of
the 20th century, he had no way of knowing that space was not a
We know that light travels upon the fabric of space, but no
observation has ever been made of light propagating through an
Even in the thinnest intergalactic space, any given cubic centimeter
is awash in activity. Virtual particles spontaneously come into
existence, then blink out again. Radiation permeates this thinnest
of space. Whole atoms, unhindered, reach such high velocities that a
plethora of them
pass through a given cubic centimeter at any given time.
Space is a fabric of mass/energy and the laws of pressure are just
as relevant in outer space as within the boundaries of our own
atmosphere; it's just on a much, much bigger scale.
Let us now perform a simple thought model. Let's imagine that I, by
calling upon some mysterious power, can force the mass/energy out of
an area of given volume.
The first thing you would notice is that it would form into a sphere
because of the pressure of the air pushing in on it equally from all
sides. If you were able to observe the sphere - which you can't and
I'll explain why shortly - it would be completely dark. Within this
volume, there is no time nor temperature.
Now, the reason you could not directly look at this absence of
mass/energy is because the exterior atmosphere would fall in on it
with such intense pressure that it would glow.
...And that attraction, that crushing in of the exterior air would
be indistinguishable from gravity.
Could such objects really exist in reality?
Together with solid, liquid and gas, plasma is the 4th state of
matter. Our Sun is a large charged plasma ball. Because the sun is
rotating, this creates a dynamo effect which allows the plasma to
exist as a single unified magnetic entity.
How powerful is this effect? If you look at the shifting structures
in the suns outer layers, you see quite plainly that they are not
visibly effected by the crushing gravitational attraction of the
Sun. This is because the gravitational force is some 10 x 33rd times
weaker than the magnetic force (thats a number with 30 zeros behind
it.) In other words, it only takes a fraction of the plasma's
magnetic potential to overcome the gravitational influence of the
Here are three persuasive observations that lead me to believe that
the sun propagates in this manner.
Sunspots are dark depressions in the Sun's photosphere. The reason
they are dark is because we are looking in towards the absolute
vacuum of the Sun through this temporary thinning of solar hydrogen.
2. Helioseismology. Scientists have discovered that the sun rings,
much like a bell. These oscillations are much easier to propagate
through a thin plasma shell, rather than through an increasingly
dense object. One might compare a bowling ball and a bell; the bell
is much more likely to successfully oscillate.
3. Angular momentum.
If the solar system formed by accretion of interstellar matter, then
our Sun ought to be rotating much, much faster than it is. Like a
spinning ice skater accelerating by drawing in their arms, the Sun -
in the center of the solar system - ought to have the lions share of
angular momentum, but when we look at the system, we find that
Jupiter, our largest outer gas-giant planet, has the majority of the
angular momentum. Jupiter rotates once every 10 hours, whereas the
Sun rotates only every 30 days.
Picture a proto-star, somewhat heavier than Jupiter. The dense
pressure in the interior inaugurates nuclear fusion.
A charged plasma is created.
The dynamo effect created by the rapidly rotating proto-Sun supplies
a unifying magnetic field for the plasma.
Stripped Electrons and protons form into camps of like particles.
Magnetic repulsion occurs. ( Outward flow of plasma .)
The proto sun rapidly expands, and in doing so, like a spinning
skater putting out their arms, the rotation slows.
This inflation of the Sun leaves non space in it's wake; induced
gravitational attraction is brought about, restraining the further
outward flow of matter.
The opposing forces of magnetic repulsion and Induced gravitational
attraction brings the solar shell into equilibrium.
The Sun's shell of matter is heated under pressure from magnetic
plasma repulsion and induced gravitational attraction.
And now the the process repeats, The sun is in it's sustaining
cycle. The dense pressure of the suns matter crushing in on the
non-space heats it, sustaining nuclear fusion, which in turn
sustains the plasma. The fuel is hydrogen.
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